January 2022

Galagedarage Thushari Madhubhashini

The Open University of Sri Lanka



Media education was introduced to Sri Lankan secondary education in 2006. The purpose of the study is to examine the challenges and opportunities in media education in the secondary education system in Sri Lanka by using the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework (TPACK) model. The Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and the in-depth interviews were conducted to collect data for the study. The results show that the challenges and opportunities are mainly connected with the curriculum, teaching, assessments, technology and resources which are the main elements of the TPACK model. Moreover, the main challenges occurred in media education are heavily concentrated on theoretical knowledge, a lack of practical and skill-based content, medium of teaching mainly in Sinhala language, less training provided for teachers, unavailability of directors for the subject at the zonal and provincial levels, limited resources and infrastructure facilities in schools, less representation of teachers in curriculum development, private tuition becomes more essential for the subject, limited “A” grades etc. On the other hand, availability of qualified school teachers, having fair Z-Score and practical activities such as media workshops, media exhibitions, wallpapers, media days and media weeks, radio services etc. for students and having qualified and experienced academics in curriculum development, evaluation etc. are the opportunities available in media education. Therefore, the responsible authorities should develop curriculum, teaching, assessments, technologies and resources to ensure the quality of the media education in the secondary education system in Sri Lanka.      


Keywords:  Communication and Media Studies, Secondary education, Media education, Sri Lanka, TPACK framework

Jaslina Mohd Tajuddin
SEGi University, Malaysia


This study explores the relationship between social media use and credibility and trust in the democratic system. Malaysia is a democratic country. A democratic system means citizens have equal opportunities to be part of the decision-making process involving a country's interests. Facebook and Internet, as indicators of social media, their use and credibility were measured to correlate them with trust in democracy. The underlying assumption was that social media as an equalizer of information would promote information and inevitably increase trust in the democratic system. The study measured the three concepts of media use, credibility and trust in the democratic system in a nationwide face-to-face interview in March 2021. A questionnaire was used as the instrument to solicit the opinion of 818 Malaysian citizens. A quota-based sample used for this study obtained the socio-demographic population characteristics, with respondents giving answers to the questions asked on the democratic system. Results showed that Malaysian citizens were moderate users of Facebook and the Internet, spending 6-7 days per week on the platforms. In terms of the credibility of the Internet and Facebook, the results showed their low credibility of the media. Only 33 per cent of respondents believed the Internet, and 29 per cent of respondents agreed that Facebook and Internet were considered moderate in credibility. Three items measured trust in the democratic system. A total of 61 per cent of respondents had trust in the current democratic system practised by the government. Pearson correlation measured the relationship between Facebook and Internet Use and Credibility and Trust in the Democratic System.

Keywords: Democracy, Credibility, Facebook, Social media, Malaysia

Patrick Udende *

University of Ilorin, Nigeria



Esther Oluwapelumi Ojo

University of Ilorin, Nigeria


*Corresponding author


Social media offer platforms where users can convey information by posting pictures or commenting on pictures others upload. Motivated to find out the motives social media users indulge in uploading photos; an online survey was conducted on 381 respondents using four social media platforms namely; Facebook, WhatsApp, Instagram and Snapchat. The objective was to determine the underlying motives for users uploading pictures on social media platforms.  The study was anchored on the Uses and Gratifications theory. Some of the study’s prominent findings are: the most preferred social media platform for posting pictures by users is WhatsApp; the rationale is to inspire people, make people laugh, and express feelings or emotions. Findings also show that the most prevalent challenge users encounter while posting pictures on social media is poor network. The study recommends that those in business activities and in institutions of learning should use WhatsApp to interact with a large number of users through the deployment of info graphics. In addition, Internet service providers should strategically erect and maintain telecommunication to ensure an uninterrupted network for sharing pictures online by users.


Keywords: Motivations, photo sharing, social media, uses and gratifications; web-based technology

Tsegyu Santas *

Nasarawa State University, Nigeria


Kelvin Inobemhe

Nasarawa State University, Nigeria


Barikui Nnaane

University of the Gambia, Gambia


*Corresponding author


In the wake of the COVID-19 outbreak in the world, projections show that economies and countries will be vulnerable to the disease and susceptible to corruption due to emergency spending occasioned by serious public health concerns. International organisations drummed support for a corrupt-free response across the globe and at the same time, emphasised the need for transparency and accountability, on the other, media elsewhere and in Nigeria seem poised to play its unique role as watchdog. The Nigerian media being the fourth estate of the realm is known to always hold government and individuals serving government accountable, as they play the watchdog role. This study employed the conceptual technique of research through content analysis to critically explore the role of the media in the fight against corruption in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic. The paper takes the position that Nigerian media were able to report several corruption cases during the nationwide national lockdown in the country. In addition, the paper asserts that even when these corruption cases were reported by the media, further investigation of the cases by anti-graft agencies is often hindered because of government interference especially when such cases affect government officials.


Keywords: Corruption, Pandemic, Media, COVID-19, Public health

Hasnah Abdul Kadir *


Rizalawati Ismail

International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)


Saodah Wok

International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM)


Kamaruzzaman Abdul Manan

Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI)


*Corresponding author


Malaysia is moving towards a cashless society. The latest trend in a cashless society is the e-Wallet, which has the ability to store personal information as well as financial status. The e-Wallet can efficiently replace the physical wallet (cash). The implementation of online Internet banking for a financial transactions is the starting point of e-Wallet in Malaysia. In 2017, the e-Wallet is introduced to the public. This study tries to gauge the extent of e-Wallet usage in Malaysia. The objectives of the study are to (1) determine the level of usage, perceived usefulness, perceived ease-of-use, media influence, social influence, and attitude in using e-Wallet; (2) analyse the relationship between e-Wallet usage with internal and external factors; and (3) test mediating effect of attitude in using e-Wallet on the relationship between usage, internal factors, and external factors. The study uses a quantitative research design using a survey method with the questionnaire as the research instrument. A total of 436 respondents participated in the study. The study uses Technological Acceptance Model (TAM) to test for the mediating effect. The findings show that perceived ease-of-use is the highest level rated compared to other variables. The relationship between e-Wallet usage with the internal and external factors are all significant and positive. Furthermore, the attitude partially mediates the relationship between e-Wallet usage, internal factors and external factors. Hence, all hypotheses constructed are supported and TAM applies to the study of e-Wallet.

Keywords: Attitude, E-Wallet usage, Malaysia, mediating effect, Technology Acceptance Model